Pipeline transportation is not only an important part of the oil and gas industry. It can not only play an important role in implementing the national energy strategy and industrial layout, serve the macro-control, but also realize the real-time regulation of resources through unified scheduling. Unified scheduling is an important step in achieving global optimization, embodying the advanced nature of socialist production relations. After the establishment of the national pipe network company, the optimization is not only in the horizontal interconnection and pipe network, but also provides the possibility for the vertical whole industry chain to optimize the allocation of resources. At the same time, the oil and gas big data of the pipeline network helps to build China's "international oil and gas trade market" and obtain pricing power, so as to fundamentally ensure national energy security and maintain social stability.
Wen | Liu Bing
1. Looking at the pipe network under the general pattern
The oil and gas storage and transportation system mainly includes important storage and transportation facilities such as oil and gas long-distance pipeline, oil depot, gas depot and LNG connecting wharf. The construction of backbone pipe network is the cornerstone. Over the past decade, China has successively completed and put into operation pipelines for the west to East Gas Transmission and China Myanmar oil and gas. The backbone oil and gas pipeline network has been basically formed, with a total mileage of more than 120000 kilometers, covering 31 provinces, regions and cities in China and the Hong Kong Special administrative region. A number of LNG connection terminals have been built and put into operation successively. At present, there are more than 20 LNG connection terminals, and offshore oil and gas strategic channels have also been formed. It basically forms the oil and gas supply pattern of "oil from the west to the East, oil from the north to the south, gas from the west to the East, gas from the north to the south, Myanmar gas to the north and Sea gas landing".
With the pipeline, Xinjiang's oil will be transported from exploitation, processing and refining to gas stations in Chengdu, Chongqing, Hunan and Hubei in no more than three days; The natural gas from Central Asia is gathered, purified and treated at the wellhead and transported to Shanghai within one week. The raw oil of chemical plants and refineries should be supplied through crude oil pipelines, and the refined product oil should also be transported to cities, airports, docks and military oil depots through pipelines. Clean and convenient natural gas should be sent to thousands of households through the pipe network. At the same time, glass plants and fertilizer plants also need a large amount of pipeline gas supply. As a special transportation industry in the tertiary industry, oil and gas pipelines directly or indirectly serve the primary industry, the secondary industry and other service industries. How to fully understand the role and task of pipe network? But also from the perspective of the overall situation. In this way, we can know the status, role and significance of pipe network in the national economy, and understand the responsibilities and tasks of pipe network more accurately. To study the pipe network, we must first study the energy layout; Planning the pipe network is actually planning the national resource allocation. At present, China's energy pattern has undergone considerable changes. In 2018, coal accounted for less than 60% of primary energy consumption for the first time, while oil and gas accounted for more than 25% for the first time. At present, China's crude oil consumption has reached 650 million tons / year and natural gas consumption is about 270 billion cubic meters / year. The total annual oil and gas consumption cost has reached 5 trillion yuan.
Macroscopically, the layout of oil and gas pipeline network can play an important role in implementing the national energy regulation strategy and industrial layout. At the micro level, the pipe network can realize the real-time regulation of oil and gas resources through unified scheduling. The recent dispute between the United States and Europe over the "Beixi 2 pipeline" further illustrates the strategic position of the pipeline. It can be said that the oil and gas pipeline network is worthy of being "an energy hub and an important instrument of the country".
2. Cost composition of oil and gas industry
Looking at the pipe network under the general pattern, first of all, let's take a look at the cost composition of the oil and gas industry. It mainly includes three categories: energy consumption expenses (fuel power and loss expenses), maintenance operation and manufacturing expenses, wages and welfare expenses. From the perspective of industrial characteristics, maintenance and manufacturing costs are mainly related to the status of fixed assets, wages and welfare costs are affected by human resources, and energy consumption is closely related to the mode of production and operation. Oil and gas development, refining, storage and transportation and sales. Energy consumption accounts for nearly 20% of the cash cost of oilfield operation (production), about 30% of the cash cost of refinery operation, more than 50% of the cash cost of oil pipeline and about 40% of the full cost. According to relevant statistics, at present, energy consumption accounts for nearly 30% of the overall cash costs of PetroChina and Sinopec, ranking first among the variable costs, followed by maintenance and manufacturing costs. It reflects the characteristics that two consumption (energy consumption and loss) and one cost (maintenance cost) account for a large proportion.
3.Characteristics of oil and gas industry
The most important aspects of production and operation in the field of oil and gas industry are oil and gas field exploration and development (production), oil refining, oil and gas storage and transportation (pipeline transportation), natural gas and product oil sales. Oil and gas industry is a high-tech industry with high investment, high income and high risk. The importance of production, operation and management of oil and gas industry is reflected in three levels: first, from the perspective of technological progress, it can improve productivity efficiency and give full play to the productivity potential of enterprises; Second, from the perspective of economic responsibility, it can improve economic benefits and enterprise profits; Third, from the perspective of social responsibility, it can promote the intensification of social resources.
Oil and gas industry has its own inherent objective management characteristics. Process complexity and upstream and downstream continuity determine the diversity of its production process; The characteristics of high risk and high income determine that its income is very sensitive to business differences. Therefore, the production characteristics of oil and gas industry can be summarized as "four balances", that is, the production capacity balance of production, transportation, supply, marketing, storage and trade is required; Energy balance of oil, gas and electricity is required; The time balance between the operation hours of facilities and devices and the maintenance cycle is required; Material balance of raw material supply and output is required.
Under different political systems, the oil and gas industry reflects different social attributes. Different social attributes endow them with different production and management characteristics. Under the capitalist relations of production, oil groups shoulder the economic responsibility to investors. In order to optimize production and operation and improve economic benefits, there are three common practices in the world: first, maintain the low cost and high efficiency of various business activities by strengthening strategic management; Second, realize the rapid expansion of the company's scale and further strengthen its strength through capital operation; Third, form new profit growth points and improve the return on investment by expanding emerging markets. As mentioned above, energy consumption accounts for nearly 30% of the overall cash cost of Petroleum Group companies, ranking first among the variable costs, followed by maintenance and manufacturing costs. The rationality of production and operation and the optimization degree of joint operation determine the level of energy consumption cost. Under the socialist relations of production, the oil and gas industry shoulders not only economic responsibility, but also political and social responsibility.
4 global optimization theory and examples
The production task of oil and gas industry is to complete the production, transportation, supply, marketing, storage and trade of oil and gas and its products in a safe, reliable, economic and reasonable way. From the perspective of operational research, it is the optimal solution of single target value or multi-target value with multiple constraints. Compared with piecewise optimization, global optimization can provide greater degrees of freedom and optimization space, and better results can be obtained under the mode of overall consideration and global optimization. From the perspective of operational research, the fewer constraints and the more degrees of freedom, the more ideal the optimization solution is. Global optimization can better improve resource utilization efficiency and production efficiency. Here are some typical examples of "cross-border" joint operation:
Example 1: optimization of combined transportation between gas field and pipeline. Without considering the global optimization, the wellhead pressure up to tens of MPa is often consumed and wasted in the production process of gas gathering, treatment, purification and other gas fields. Because according to the segmented optimization management mode, the gas field enterprises only need to supply gas according to the minimum gas supply pressure (the minimum inlet pressure designed for the downstream long-distance pipeline). However, if the operation and management is carried out from the perspective of global optimization, the "residual pressure" of the gas field shall be retained to the initial station of the long-distance pipeline as far as possible, so as to avoid the meaningless waste of energy from wellhead to gas gathering station, treatment plant, purification plant and long-distance pipeline. The load of the compressor station is reduced, the pressure energy that needs to be supplemented by the whole system is reduced, and the energy consumption is reduced.
Example 2: optimization of combined transportation between oil field and refinery. Without considering the global optimization, the combined station will generally use the light hydrocarbon recovery and crude oil stabilization device to extract the light components in the crude oil as much as possible and be used locally or sold at a low price as low-grade and low-value mine fuel. Such as: associated moisture, liquefied petroleum gas, etc. After extraction, the "rich oil" becomes "poor oil" and then transmitted to the refinery through pipeline. This often leads to lower output level of downstream refineries and even inefficient operation of some units. However, if the operation and management is carried out from the perspective of overall optimization, the oil field can retain as many light components as possible for refinery for more professional and efficient fine separation and processing on the premise of ensuring production safety and transportation safety, which can produce better benefits for the whole oil and gas production and refining industry chain.
Carry out global optimization in multiple links (fields) of cross production, transportation, supply, marketing, storage and trade, with greater freedom and optimization space, and better effect of cost reduction and efficiency increase. Since the 1960s, global optimization has been applied to oil and gas system in foreign countries to reduce cost and increase efficiency. In China, it started late and did not start this research until the early 1980s.
5 the advanced nature of unified dispatching.
The establishment of the national pipe network company will manage the unified management of the crude oil, finished oil and natural gas backbone network in China, which is conducive to the macro regulation and real-time allocation of energy, and embodies the advanced nature of the socialist production relations.
In the west, due to different systems, the private ownership of means of production leads to its over reliance on market commercial competition for resource allocation. In addition, the abuse of antitrust mechanism makes it difficult for pipeline companies to become bigger, and their role in energy hub and overall optimization has been greatly reduced. In Europe, several pipeline companies can only coordinate through "commercial mechanism", which is inefficient. It is precisely because of the advanced nature of the socialist system that we have the advantage of "standing at the global perspective and concentrating on the major tasks". The national pipe network company came into being under China's superior social system. Under the framework of the national pipe network company, we can achieve the unified ownership and unified scheduling of the three media pipe networks. The unified management of a country's oil and gas pipeline network is the first in the world.
Overall optimization and free competition coexist, give full play to their respective advantages, realize the greatest common divisor and benefit the people to the greatest extent. The establishment of the national pipe network company is not only conducive to optimizing the allocation of resources and avoiding repeated waste, but also can contribute to the opening of the oil and gas market to various ownership entities. The national pipeline network can provide comprehensive oil and gas supply and demand data and real-time logistics data for the oil and gas trading platform. Once the trading platform interacts with the pipeline network, it will even give birth to a new international oil and gas futures trading market. The unified dispatching management mode of the national pipe network company is undoubtedly advanced all over the world! This is another embodiment of the advanced nature of the socialist system.
6. Prospect of unified dispatching and optimized configuration
After the unified management and dispatching of oil and gas pipeline network, its role in the optimal allocation of resources can be prospected from the following aspects:
First, in terms of macro-control and industrial adjustment. At present, the national backbone oil and gas pipeline network has been preliminarily completed, forming a supply pattern of "oil from the west to the East, oil from the north to the south, gas from the west to the East, gas from the north to the south, Myanmar gas to the north and Sea gas landing", which is an important achievement of the national oil and gas resource planning for decades. The comprehensive construction cost of the backbone oil and gas pipeline network is about 100 million yuan / km, with large investment, long service life and long investment payback period. This network is hard won. To improve, use and waste this network, we must make it better serve the overall situation of national industrial structure adjustment and give play to the role of macro-control. At the same time, the existing layout of the national pipe network is also an important factor affecting the adjustment of industrial structure. As mentioned above, oil and gas pipeline network is closely related to the development of primary industry, secondary industry and tertiary industry. The adjustment of industrial structure must break the original resource allocation, and the supply-demand relationship of oil and gas resources is also facing the process of breaking the balance and rebalancing to form a new normal. After the establishment of the national pipe network company, the national network will certainly contribute to the great game of industrial structure adjustment.
Second, in terms of fairness, openness and adjustment of supply and demand. China's existing oil and gas backbone pipeline network has a high degree of automation and a good information foundation. After unified management, the use information of facilities and oil and gas logistics information will be collected centrally. These national big data can not be ignored. First, this big data can be directly used to support the implementation of "fair and open oil and gas pipeline network facilities". Through big data, oil and gas traders can not only understand which facilities have residual storage and transportation capacity, so as to carry out competitive bidding and leasing, but also understand the relationship between oil and gas supply and demand everywhere, so as to find business opportunities and fair competition. Second, using this big data, we can more objectively study the law of oil and gas consumption all over the country, so as to formulate a more effective guarantee scheme. Third, this big data can be used to carry out third-party oil and gas quality supervision to better protect the rights and interests of consumers. Fourth, oil and gas big data helps China obtain international oil and gas pricing power through market mechanism. China has become the largest importer of oil and gas. More than half of China's oil and gas resources need to be imported by sea in the form of futures or spot through international trade. Pipeline import generally locks the price completely or partially in advance by signing a 10-year or even 20-year long-term agreement to shield the risk of price fluctuation. Oil and gas resources imported by sea are different from pipeline imports. Their prices are generally determined by futures and spot markets, and the prices fluctuate greatly. In particular, it is easy to form malicious speculation, even trigger an economic crisis and endanger energy security. Since 2018, China has become the largest importer of oil and gas, but China does not have the right to price oil and gas at present. To obtain pricing power, we must have a trading market and effectively control the healthy operation of this market. After the establishment of the national pipe network company, the whole country has one network, unified dispatching and transparent data. It can not only realize the fair opening of domestic oil and gas facilities and adjust the function of oil and gas supply and demand. This will also make an important contribution to China's access to international oil and gas pricing power. By making good use of the oil and gas big data of the national pipeline network, we can build the Shanghai oil and gas trading center into the fifth international energy trading market in the world and obtain pricing power for China. For large energy importing countries, the international free trade of oil and gas resources is the biggest guarantee for the security of national energy strategy.
Third, in terms of oil and gas supply and emergency disposal. State pipe network corporation is another large central enterprise that can uniformly manage important infrastructure nationwide after State Grid Corporation of China and State Railway Corporation of China. An important feature of such central enterprises is that they bear not only economic responsibility, but also social and political responsibility. It is particularly important to assume the responsibility of national energy strategic security. In terms of emergency response, the national pipe network company, like the national household electrical appliance network company and the national railway company, can better support the work of the national development and Reform Commission and the national coal, electricity, oil transportation, rescue and disaster relief emergency command center. On the one hand, we can use the big data of oil and gas pipeline network mentioned above to predict and warn oil and gas shortage; On the other hand, the efficient management system of unified dispatching can be used to implement emergency response measures. Especially in the face of natural disasters, oil and gas embargoes and even wartime emergencies, the unified dispatching oil and gas pipeline network can more efficiently perform the task of oil and gas supply and quickly complete the allocation of oil and gas resources. So as to better deal with natural and man-made disasters, reduce or even avoid gas and oil shortages, ensure energy security and maintain social stability.
The fourth is to stabilize the price and increase efficiency. After the unified dispatching of the pipe network, it is conducive to reduce the cost by optimizing the operation, so as to reduce the oil and gas price. To reduce costs, on the one hand, is to directly reduce the operation cost of oil and gas transmission; on the other hand, it is to give play to the role of pipe network energy hub, cooperate with the state to implement macro-control policies, and realize the optimization of resource allocation of the whole industrial chain and even cross industries, so as to reduce costs and increase efficiency. As mentioned above, energy consumption cost (also known as fuel and power cost) accounts for 30% of the operating cost of the oil and gas industry, which is the first variable cost. In pipeline transportation, the energy consumption cost accounts for 50%.